Friday, August 17, 2012

Happy Independence Day Indonesia

Today  ( 17 August ) is 67th Indonesia's Independence Day. I wish happy Independence Day for Indonesia and their citizens.

Brief History of Independence of Indonesia

17 August 1945 Soekarno proclaimed Independence of Indonesia and this day became Day of Independence.

First westerners coming to Indonesia were Portugueses (1511), Spaniards and then Dutch and British and last one Japaneses in II World War for about four years. During the discoveries of new continents ( New World ) Portuguese traders came to Indonesia for raw materials and spices mostly. Soon Dutch overpowered on Indonesia and became dominant power. The name of Batavia is coming from Dutch times for Jakarta area used.

In Indonesia there were kingdoms before occupations of west and first attempt against them was in 1666 by Sultan Hasanuddin of Goa which resulted by failure. In 1680 Prince Trunojoyo of Madura also defeated and killed by Dutch. In 1740 Chinese residents attempted a riot which later on Indonesians also involved but also failed and around ten thousand Chinese killed.

British came in 1714 but only stayed in Sumatera but Dutch was under occupation of Napoleon' France shortly they ruled Indonesia. After fall of Napoleon Dutch strengthened again and hold power but attempts against rule of Dutch continued.

Thomas Matulessy (Pattimura) revolt in Moluccas 1816-1818. The Java War 1825-1830 by Prince Diponegoro of Mataram. In west Sumatera, Padri War by Tuanku Imam Bonjol and in North Sumatera, Aceh War by Teuku Umar 1873-1903. Revolt in 1907 by King Sisingamangaraja of the Bataks. Also in 1908 Dutch attacked Bali and defended by King Udayana and repelled. Some other revolts also occurred in different islands and places such as Goa, Sulawesi, Kalimantan. But all of those attempts was failed or partly succeeded.

Nationalist awakening rouse by founding Budi Utomo by Dr. Soetomo on 20 may 1908. Founding aim was improvement of education, culture and awareness but turned a politic movement later on. It is founded by intellectuals considerably. Soon founded associations and parties. But most of leaders arrested or exiled by Dutch authorities.

In march 1942 Dutch forces surrendered to Japanese Army. Leaders like Soekorno and Hatta released same year. During the Japanese occupation four millions Indonesian died from starving and forced labor. During this occupation anthem, language and flag accepted by nationally. After two days of Japanese surrender in war Soekorno proclaimed Independence of Indonesia and became first president of Indonesia while Drs. Mohammad Hatta is vice president.

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